- What are viruses made of?
- What diseases can prions cause?
- Are viruses living?
- What is the most common way for a virus to kill a cell?
- Can Viroids infect viruses?
- What is a viroid disease?
- Do viruses have DNA?
- Why is a viroid not a virus?
- Do humans have prions?
- Is a virion a virus?
- Are Viroids smaller than viruses?
- How can prions be destroyed?
What are viruses made of?
A virus is made up of a core of genetic material, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protective coat called a capsid which is made up of protein.
Sometimes the capsid is surrounded by an additional spikey coat called the envelope..
What diseases can prions cause?
Identified Prion DiseasesCreutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD)Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker Syndrome.Fatal Familial Insomnia.Kuru.
Are viruses living?
So were they ever alive? Most biologists say no. Viruses are not made out of cells, they can’t keep themselves in a stable state, they don’t grow, and they can’t make their own energy. Even though they definitely replicate and adapt to their environment, viruses are more like androids than real living organisms.
What is the most common way for a virus to kill a cell?
Most viral infections eventually result in the death of the host cell. The causes of death include cell lysis, alterations to the cell’s surface membrane and various modes of programmed cell death.
Can Viroids infect viruses?
Despite being composed by a single-stranded, circular, non-protein-coding RNA of just 246-401 nucleotides (nt), viroids can incite in their host plants symptoms similar to those caused by DNA and RNA viruses, which have genomes at least 20-fold bigger and encode proteins.
What is a viroid disease?
Symptoms of viroid infection in plants include stunting of growth, deformation of leaves and fruit, stem necrosis, and death. Because viroids do not produce mRNAs, it was first proposed that disease must be a consequence of viroid RNA binding to host proteins or nucleic acids.
Do viruses have DNA?
Most viruses have either RNA or DNA as their genetic material. The nucleic acid may be single- or double-stranded. The entire infectious virus particle, called a virion, consists of the nucleic acid and an outer shell of protein. The simplest viruses contain only enough RNA or DNA to encode four proteins.
Why is a viroid not a virus?
Viroids are plant pathogens: small, single-stranded, circular RNA particles that are much simpler than a virus. They do not have a capsid or outer envelope, but, as with viruses, can reproduce only within a host cell. Viroids do not, however, manufacture any proteins. They produce only a single, specific RNA molecule.
Do humans have prions?
A prion is a type of protein that can trigger normal proteins in the brain to fold abnormally. Prion diseases can affect both humans and animals and are sometimes spread to humans by infected meat products. The most common form of prion disease that affects humans is Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).
Is a virion a virus?
Virion, an entire virus particle, consisting of an outer protein shell called a capsid and an inner core of nucleic acid (either ribonucleic or deoxyribonucleic acid—RNA or DNA). The core confers infectivity, and the capsid provides specificity to the virus.
Are Viroids smaller than viruses?
Viroids are plant pathogens that consist of a very short stretch of circular, single-stranded RNA that does not have a protein coat. They are essentially strands of naked RNA. They are much smaller than viruses.
How can prions be destroyed?
To destroy a prion it must be denatured to the point that it can no longer cause normal proteins to misfold. Sustained heat for several hours at extremely high temperatures (900°F and above) will reliably destroy a prion.